Acids are widely used in the manufacture of various substances such as solvents, chemicals, foods, fertilizers, medicines and plastics. The concentration of an acid usually determines where it can be used.
Sulfuric acid is one of the most used acids in industry. It is used to refine metals, and it has a role in the manufacture of fertilizers. Sulfuric acid is also used to refine petroleum and pickle several metals. Hydrochloric acid is used to clean oil wells and metals. It is also important in the manufacture of various foods and such substances as calcium chloride.
Nitric acid is used in the manufacture of the fertilizer ammonium nitrate. Phosphoric acid has plenty of uses in industry, such as in the manufacture of medicines, chemicals and food. It is also used in construction. Citric acid is mostly used in the manufacture of foods and beverages. It is also used as a preservative in the biochemistry industry.
Dilute acetic acid is another widely used acid in industrial processes, especially in the manufacture of chemical solutions. It is normally used as a chemical reagent in the manufacture of chemicals such as ester, acetic anhydride and acetate monomer. Other widely used acids in industry include formic acid, oxalic acid and acetic acid glacial.
Acid corrosion is the wearing away, or gradual destruction, of materials by acidic compounds. The acids involved may come from the atmosphere, soil or groundwater, and water is necessary for the reactions to proceed. Acid corrosion of metals is caused by electrochemical processes. There is a great range of metal corrosion processes.
J.H. Equipment supplies a variety of reactors, vessels, condensers, columns, pipes and fittings for the acid industry which work perfectly under strong acidic corrosive environment. Generally, J.H. Glass-lining has a high degree of resistance to acids whatever their concentration, up to relatively high temperatures. For most of the inorganic acids, the resistance of the glass passes through a minimum for a concentration of 20-30% weight, then increases with the acid concentration. For example, the 0.1mm/year rate is found at 128℃ in H2SO4 30% and at 180℃ in H2SO4 60%.
Concentrated Nitric Acid ( i.e. high-strength nitric acid at 98 -99% w/w.) is an important chemical for Chemical & Pharmaceutical industries in general (like polymers & plastics, dyestuff, bulk drugs, explosives, Fertilizers and other important organic nitro-compounds). This acid is frequently used as "nitrating acid". Industrially manufactured Nitric acid is obtained as a weak acid solution, at a concentration of about 65% -67% w/w (max.), which is of no use whatsoever for the various processes stated above, Owing to the physical behaviour of the nitric acid / water system, it is not possible to remove excess water from this weak acid by a fractional distillation process because this solution forms an azeotrope, a constant acid / water boiling composition at about 68% w/w. acid. To concentrate this acid further an extractive distillation process by adding concentrated sulphuric acid needs to be employed. While the water goes this sulphuric acid gets diluted, which can be again re-concentrated and reused for the concentration of dilute nitric acid again.
We design and make the whole production line for concentration of nitric acid(NAC) and sulfuric acid (SAC), the final product can be 98% industrial grade or pure reagent grade. The output capacity can be from 15~200 ton/day depending on the requirement. The materials available can be glass-lined steel or others, such as hastelloy for concentration of sulfuric acid and high silicon iron for the concentration of nitric acid. J.H. also hold the technology to recycle the concentrated sulfuric/nitric acid from the waste acid.